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Table 3 Neuro-protective factors used in the treatment of stroke

From: Ischemic stroke and repair: current trends in research and tissue engineering treatments

Species Model Neuro-protective factors Effects Functional recovery Refs
Rat MCAO BDNF Regulated neuronal survival, migration, differentiation and synaptic function; reduced infarct size N.A. [97]
Rat MCAO GDNF Promoted neuronal survival; regulated migration and differentiation of several peripheral neurons N.A. [98104]
Rat MCAO EPO Promoted the differentiation and proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells; improved the survival of maturing cells; enhanced angiogenesis and neurogenesis Improved neurological outcome on the foot fault and corner tests [105, 106]
Rat MCAO EPO + hCG Decreased the total infarct volume Improved composite neurological score and forelimb placing behavioral outcome [107]
Rat PVD lesion of motor and sensory cortex EPO + EGF Promoted migration of SVZ NPCs to infarct sizes; differentiated into neurons and astrocytes; enhanced cortical regeneration Showed improvement in cylinder test and swimming task [108]
Rat MCAO FGF2 Reduced infarct volume; improved neurobehavioral and histological outcomes; increased the number of SVZ newborn neurons Acquired better symmetry of movement and forepaw outstretching in aged rats [109]
Rat MCAO FGF2 + platelet-poor plasma (PPP) + platelet lysate (PLT) Increased SVZ endogenous neural stem cells (eNSC) proliferation, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and neuroprotection Functional outcome was significantly improved for the neurological severity score [110]
Rat MCAO TGF-alpha Regulated migration and differentiation of the newly generated neurons; enhanced neurogenesis The asymmetric behavioral outcomes were improved in the corner test and the cylinder test. [111]
Rat MCAO G-CSF Reduced infarct volume N.A. [112]
Rat MCAO NGF Reduced apoptotic cell death after ischemic injury N.A. [113]