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Table 1 Cell therapy used in the treatment of stroke

From: Ischemic stroke and repair: current trends in research and tissue engineering treatments

Stem cell Source Function Species Model Effects Refs.
Neural stem cells Neuraxis of adult CNS Differentiate into three CNS cell types in stroke-damaged brain, including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes Rat MCAO Behavioral recovery on a series of sensory tasks and motor tasks; neural stem cells differentiated into neurons and promote function recovery [2430]
Mesenchymal stem cells Bone marrow Differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, neurons and some other cell types Rat MCAO Behavioral recovery; facilitated functional recovery; reduced scar thickness and increased number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and proliferating cells along SVZ [3134]
Olfactory Ensheathing cells Nasal olfactory mucosa Guide axon outgrowth and remyelinate axons and secrete many trophic factors (including BDNF, VEGF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) Rat MCAO The combined transplantation of OECs with fibroblasts facilitated neurite outgrowth and led to a reversal of the neurological deficits [3539]
Dental stem cells Dental pulp (dental pulp stem cells) as well as dental follicle cells Differentiate into neural cells, osteocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, muscle cells and hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo; express neurotrophic factors such as GDNF, BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF); promote angiogenesis Rat MCAO Functional recovery was observed in one motor task; surviving cells may have differentiated into neurons [4043]