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Table 1 Cell therapy used in the treatment of stroke

From: Ischemic stroke and repair: current trends in research and tissue engineering treatments

Stem cell

Source

Function

Species

Model

Effects

Refs.

Neural stem cells

Neuraxis of adult CNS

Differentiate into three CNS cell types in stroke-damaged brain, including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes

Rat

MCAO

Behavioral recovery on a series of sensory tasks and motor tasks; neural stem cells differentiated into neurons and promote function recovery

[2430]

Mesenchymal stem cells

Bone marrow

Differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, neurons and some other cell types

Rat

MCAO

Behavioral recovery; facilitated functional recovery; reduced scar thickness and increased number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and proliferating cells along SVZ

[3134]

Olfactory Ensheathing cells

Nasal olfactory mucosa

Guide axon outgrowth and remyelinate axons and secrete many trophic factors (including BDNF, VEGF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)

Rat

MCAO

The combined transplantation of OECs with fibroblasts facilitated neurite outgrowth and led to a reversal of the neurological deficits

[3539]

Dental stem cells

Dental pulp (dental pulp stem cells) as well as dental follicle cells

Differentiate into neural cells, osteocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, muscle cells and hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo; express neurotrophic factors such as GDNF, BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF); promote angiogenesis

Rat

MCAO

Functional recovery was observed in one motor task; surviving cells may have differentiated into neurons

[4043]